Wizards can wear pretty much any Armor type they like, however, as standard, they are not proficient in any armor type.
In past editions, wizard spellcasting was restricted when wearing armour, however, in D&D 5e, this has changed a bit. Instead, you cannot cast spells when wearing armor you aren’t proficient with as well as having disadvantage on attack rolls, ability checks and saving throws that require strength or dexterity. This means that a vanilla Wizard would be unable to cast spells while wearing any armor type.
There are ways for a wizard to gain armor proficiency though which would allow them to wear armor and cast spells. This can be a useful tactic as wizards are probably the most easily killed class in the game. A high dexterity wizard might want to have light or medium armor proficiency while a low dexterity wizard might want to consider medium or heavy armor proficiency.
A wizard can be proficient in armor in the following ways:
- Multiclass: By taking a level or 2 in a class with the right armor proficiency, you can easily gain proficiency in armor and grab some other helpful features too. I wouldn’t do this just for the armor proficiency though, I’d only do this if you stand to benefit tactically in a few ways from multiclassing.
- Armored feats: There are feats that can give you proficiency in each armor type. You can take one of these feats in place if an ability score increase if you don’t want to multiclass. This does have drawbacks as it replaces a rare, wizarding ability score increase (though you do get one point to give your character).
- Mage armor: Maybe you don’t want to worry about armor proficiency, just make sure you have the mage armor spell instead. It will use a spell slot each time it’s used, but at least wizards have a lot of these.
- Magical robe: Wizards love a good robe and some (mainly the rare, expensive ones) can increase your armor class. If you’ve got the resources to do so, you could take a robe instead and you won’t have to worry about armor proficiency.
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